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Publications

GPS and its Applications

Bertiger, W. I., J. T. Wu and S. C. Wu, Gravity field improvement using GPS data from Topex/Poseidon: a covariance analysis, J. Geophys. Res. 97:1965-1971, 1992.

Bertiger, W. I., and S. Wu, Single frequency GPS orbit determination for low Earth orbiters, paper presented at the National Tech. Meeting, Inst. of Nav., Santa Monica, Calif., Jan. 1996.

Bertiger, W. I., et al., GPS precise tracking of TOPEX/POSEIDON: Results and implications, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 24,449-24,464 , 1994.

Blewitt, G., M. B. Heflin, K. J. Hurst, D. C. Jefferson, F. H. Webb and J. F. Zumberge, Absolute far-field displacements from the 28 June 1992 Landers earthquake sequence, Nature, 361:340-342, 1993.

Freedman, A. P., Measuring earth orientation with global positioning system, Bull. Geod. 65:53-65, 1991.

Hajj, G. A., C. Zuffada, Theoretical Description of a Bistatic System for Ocean Altimetry Using the GPS Signal, submitted to Radio Science, Sept 27, 2002.

Lichten, S. M., Estimation and filtering for high-precision GPS positioning application. Manuscripta Geodaetica, 15:159-179, 1990.

Lichten, S. M. Toward GPS orbit accuracy of tens of centimeters. Geophys. Res. Let., 17:215-218, 1990.

Lichten, S. M. and J. S. Border, Strategies for high precision global positioning system orbit determination. J. Geoph. Res., 92:12751-12762, 1992.

Malla, R. P., S. C. Wu and S. M. Lichten, Geocenter location and variations in earth orientation using global positioning system measurements, J. Geophys. Res. 98:4611-4617, 1993.

Meehan, T.K. et al., "The TurboRogue GPS Receiver", 6th Int. Geodetic Symp. on Satellite Positioning, Columbus Ohio, 1992.

National Research Council (NRC), The Global Positioning System A Shared National Asset: Recommendation for Technical Improvements and Enhancements, p. 6, Committee on the future of the Global Positioning System, National Academy Press, Washington, D. C. 1995.

Spilker, J. J., GPS signal structure and performance characteristics, Navigation, 25, 29-54, 1978.

Thornton, C.L. and J. L Fanselow, GPS-based geodetic measurement systems, Renzetti NA, in Space Geodesy and Geodynamics, A. Anderson, A. Cazenave (eds), Academic Press, 1986.

Tralli, D. M. and S. M. Lichten, Comparison of Kalman filter estimates of zenith atmospheric path delays using the Global Positioning System and very long baseline interferometry, Radio Sci., 27:999-1007, 1992.

Wu, S. C., W. I. Bertiger, and J. T. Wu, Minimizing selective availability error on TOPEX GPS measurements, paper presented at the Conference on Astrodynamics, Am. Inst. of Aerosnaut. and Astronaut./Am. Astron. Soc., Portland, Oreg., Aug. 20-22, 1990.

Yunck, T. P., W. G. Melbourne, Occultations science from the sixties to present, OPAC Meeting, Graz, Austria, Sep 2002.

Yunck, T. P. and W. G. Melbourne, Spaceborne GPS for earth science, Proc. IAG Symp. G1, GPS Trends in Precise Terrestrial, Airborne, and Spaceborne Applications, Boulder, CO, Springer-Verlag, 1995.

Yunck, T. P., GPS data, acquisition, environmental effects, Reviews of Geophysics, Supplement, 349-352, July 1995; also, US National Report to IUGG 1991-1995.

Yunck, T. P., Orbit Determination, in Global Positioning System-Theory and Applications, B. Parkinson and P. Axelrad, eds, AIAA, 1995.

Yunck, T. P., Coping with the atmosphere and ionopshpere in precise satellite and ground positioning, in Environmental Effects on Spacecraft Positioning and Trajectories, Geophys. Monograph 73, IUGG v. 13, 1993.

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Planetary Occultations

Bird, M. K., S. W. Asmar, J. P. Brenkle, P. Edenhofer, O. Funke, M. Patzoid and H. Volland, Ulysses radio occultation observations of the Io plasma torus during the Jupiter encounter, Science, 257:1531-1535, 1992.

Fjeldbo, G., and V. R. Eshleman, The atmosphere of Venus as studied with the Mariner 5 dual radio-frequency occultation experiment, Radio Sci., 4, 879-897, 1969.

Fjeldbo, G., A. J. Kliore, and V. R. Eshleman, The neutral atmosphere of Venus as studied with the Mariner V radio occultation experiments, Astron. J., 76, 123-140, 1971.

Kliore, A. J., and I. R. Patel, Thermal structure of the atmosphere of Venus from Pioneer Venus radio occultations, Icarus, 52, 320-334, 1982.

Lindal, G. F., The atmosphere of Neptune: An analysis of radio occulta-tion data acquired with Voyager 2, Astron. J., 103, 967-982, 1991.

Lindal, G. F., G. E. Wood, H. B. Hotz, D. N. Sweetnam, V. R. Eshleman, and G. L. Tyler, The atmosphere of Titan: An analysis of the Voyager 1 radio occultation measurements, Icarus, 53, 248-263, 1983.

Marouf, E. A., G. L. Tyler, and P. A. Rosen, Profiling Saturn's rings by radio occultation, Icarus, 68, 120-166, 1986.

Tyler, G. L., D. N. Sweetnam, J. D. Anderson, J. K. Campbell, V. R. Eshleman, D. P. Hinson, G. S. Levy, G. F. Lindal, E. A. Marouf, and R. A. Simpson, Voyager 2 radio science observations of the Uranian system: Atmosphere, rings, and satellites, Science, 233, 79-84, 1986.

Tyler, G.L., et al., "Voyager Radio Science Observations of Neptune and Triton", Science, 246, 1466-1473, 1989.

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GPS Occultations

Ao, C. O., G. A. Hajj, T. K. Meehan, S. S. Leroy, E. R. Kursinski, M. de la Torre Juarez, B. A. Iijima, and A. J. Mannucci, Backpropagation processing of GPS radio occultation data, Proceedings of the First CHAMP Science Meeting (Potsdam, Germany Jan. 2002), Springer-Verlag, in press.

Ao, C. O., T. K. Meehan, G. A. Hajj, A. J. Mannucci, G. Beyerle, A Study of the Refractivity Bias in Occultation Retrievals Using End-to-End Simulation, OPAC Meeting, Graz, Austria, Sep 2002.

Ao, C. O., T. K. Meehan, G. A. Hajj, A. J. Mannucci, G. Beyerle, Lower-Troposphere Refractivity Bias in GPS Occultation Retrievals, Journal of Geophysical Research, submitted 25 Nov 2002.

Beyerle, G., M. E. Gorbunov, C. O. Ao, Simulation studies of GPS radio occultation measurements, Radio Science, submitted October 2002 .

Beyerle, G., K. Hocke, Observation and simulation of direct and reflected GPS signals in radio occultation, Geophys. Res. Lett., vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 1895-1898, 2001.

Byun, S. H., G. A. Hajj, L. E. Young, Development and Application of GPS Signal Multipath Simulator, Radio Science preprint, Oct 2002.

Belloul, B., and A. Hauchecorne, Effect of periodic horizontal gradients on the retrieval of atmospheric profiles from occultation measurements, submitted to Radio Sci., 32 (2), 469-478, 1997.

Cyrus Shahabi, Xiaoming Tian and Wugang Zhao TSA-tree: A Wavelet-Based Approach to Improve the Efficiency of Multi-Level Surprise and Trend Queries on Time-Series Data The 12th International Conference on Scientific and Statistical Database Management (SSDBM 2000)

de la Torre Juarez, M., G. A. Hajj, E. R. Kursinski, D. Kuang, A. J. Mannucci, L. J. Romans, Single frequency processing of GPS radio occultations, January 4 2002.

Gorbunov, M. E., Canonical transform method for processing radio occultation data in the lower troposphere, Radio Sci., vol. 37, no. 5, 10.1029/2000RS002592, 2002.

Gorbunov, M. E., Ionospheric correction and statistical optimization of radio occultation data, Radio Sci., vol. 37, no. 5, 10.1029/2000RS002370, 2002.

Gorbunov, M. E., and A. S. Gurvich, Interpretation of the GPS/MET data: diffraction and multipath effects in the lower troposphere, sub-mitted to J. Geophys. Res., 1997.

Gorbunov, M. E., A. S. Gurvich, and L. Bengtsson, Advanced algorithms of inversion of GPS/MET satellite data and their application to reconstruction of temperature and humidity, Rep. 211, Max Planck-Inst. for Meteorol., Hamburg, 1996.

Gorbunov, M. E., and S. V. Sokolovskiy, Remote sensing of refractivity from space for global observations of atmospheric parameters, Rep.119, Max Planck-Inst. for Meteorol., Hamburg, 1993.

Hajj, G. A., C. O. Ao, B. A. Iijima, D. Kuang, E. R. Kursinski, A. J. Manucci, T. K. Meehan, L. J. Romans, M. de la Torre Juarez, T. P. Yunck, CHAMP and SAC-C Atmospheric Occultation Results and Intercomparisons, submitted to J. Geophys. Res., 2002.

Hajj, G. A., and E. R. Kursinski, Analysis of errors in the vertical tem-perature profiles recovered from GPS occultation observations, Eos Trans. AGU, 72 (44), Fall Meet. Suppl., 372, 1991.

Hajj, G. A., E. R. Kursinski, W. I. Bertiger, L. J. Romans, Assessment of GPS Occultations for Atmospheric Profiling, seventh conference on satellite meteorology and oceanography, pp. J7-J10, Monterey, CA, June 6-10, 1994.

Hajj, G. A., E. R. Kursinski, W. I. Bertiger, S. S. Leroy, T. Meehan, L. J. Romans, and J. T. Schofield, Initial results of GPS-LEO occultation measurements of Earth's atmosphere obtained with the GPS/MET experiment, Proc. IAG Symp. G1, GPS Trends in Precise Terrestrial, Airborne, and Spaceborne Applications, IUGG XXI General Assy., Boulder, CO, 2-14 July 1995, Springer-Verlag, 1996.

Hardy, K. R., D. P. Hinson, G. L. Tyler, and E. R. Kursinski, Atmospheric profiles from active space-based radio measurements, paper presented at the 6th Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Ocean-ography, Am. Meteorol. Soc., Atlanta, Ga., January 5-10, 1992.

Hardy, K. R., G. A. Hajj, and E. R. Kursinski, Accuracies of atmospheric profiles obtained from GPS occultations, Int. J. Satell. Commun., 12, 463-473, 1994.

Hinson, D. P., and J. M. Jenkins, Magellan radio occultation measure-ments of atmospheric waves on Venus, Icarus, 114, 310-327, 1995.

Hinson, D. P., and J. A. Magalhaes, Equatorial waves in the strato-sphere of Uranus, Icarus, 94, 64-91, 1991.

Hinson, D. P., and J. A. Magalhaes, Inertio-Gravity Waves in the At-mosphere of Neptune waves in Neptune, Icarus, 105, 142-161, 1993.

Hinson, D. P., and G. L. Tyler, Internal gravity waves in Titan's atmos-phere observed by Voyager radio occultation, Icarus, 54, 337-352, 1983.

Hoeg, P., A. Hauchecorne, G. Kirchengast, S. Syndergaard, B. Belloul, R. Leitinger, W. Rothleitner, Derivation of Atmospheric Properties Using a Radio Occultation Technique, DMI Scientific Report 95-4, 1995.

Karayel, E. T., and D. P. Hinson, Sub-Fresnel-scale vertical resolution in atmospheric profiles from radio occultation, Radio Sci., 32 (2), 411-423, 1997.

Kursinski, E. R., Monitoring the Earth's atmosphere with GPS, GPS World, 5, 50-54, 1994.

Kursinski, E. R., The GPS radio occultation concept: theoretical per-formance and initial results, Ph.D. thesis, Calif. Inst. of Technol., Pasadena, 1997.

Kursinski, E. R., G. A. Hajj, A comparison of water vapor derived from GPS occultations and global weather analyses, Journal of Geo. Research, vol. 106, no. D1, 1113-1138, 16 January 2001.

Kursinski, E. R., G. A. Hajj, and K. R. Hardy, Observing Climate Change with the Global Positioning System, Eos Trans. AGU, 75 (44), 114, 1994.

Kursinski, E. R., G. A. Hajj, K. R. Hardy, L. J. Romans and J. T. Schofield, Observing tropospheric water vapor by radio occultation using the Global Positioning System,Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 2365-2368, 1995.

Kursinski, E. R., G. A. Hajj, W. I. Bertiger, S. S. Leroy, T. K. Meehan, L. J. Romans, J. T. Schofield, D. J. McCleese, W. G. Melbourne, C. L. Thornton, T. P. Yunck, J. R. Eyre, and R. N. Nagatani, Initial results of radio occultation observations of Earth's atmosphere using the Global Positioning System, Science , 271, 1107-1110, 1996.

Kursinski, E. R., G. A. Hajj, K. R. Hardy, J. T. Schofield, and R. Linfield, Observing Earth's Atmosphere with Radio Occultation Measurements, Journal of Geophyscial Reserach, Vol. 102, No. D19, pp 23429-23465, 1997.

Kursinski, E. R., G. A. Hajj, T. Schofield, R. P. Linfield, Observing Earth's atmosphere with radio occultation measurements using the Global Positioning System, Journal of Geo. Research, vol. 102, no. D19, 23,429-23,465, 30 October 1997.

Leroy, S. S., Measurement of geopotential heights by GPS radio occulta-tion, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 6971-6986, 1997.

Lusignan, B., G. Modrell, A. Morrison, J. Pomalaza, and S. G. Ungar, Sensing the Earth's atmosphere with occultation satellites, Proc. IEEE, 4, 458-467, 1969.

Melbourne, W.G., E. S. Davis, C. B. Duncan, G. A. Hajj, K. R. Hardy, E. R. Kursinski, T. K. Meehan, L. E. Young, T. P. Yunck, The Application of Spaceborne GPS to Atmospheric Limb Sounding and Global Chnage Monitoring, JPL Publication 94-18, April, 1994.

Rocken, C., R. Anthes, M. Exner, D. Hunt, S. Sokolovskiy, R. Ware, M. Gorbunov, W. Schreiner, D. Feng, B. Herman, Y.-H. Kuo, X. Zou, Analysis and validation of GPS/MET data in the neutral atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 102(D25), 29,849-29,866, 1997.

Vorob'ev, V. V., and T. G. Krasil'nikova, Estimation of the accuracy of the atmospheric refractive index recovery from Doppler shift meas-urements at frequencies used in the NAVSTAR system, Phys. Atmos. Ocean, 29, 602-609, 1994.

Ware, R., M. Exner, et al., GPS sounding of the atmosphere from low Earth orbit - preliminary results, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 77, 19-40, 1996.

Yuan, L. L., R. A. Anthes, R. H. Ware, C. Rocken, W. D. Bonner, M. G. Bevis and S. Businger, Sensing climate change using the global positioning system, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 14,925-14,937, 1993.

Yunck, T. P., G. F. Lindal and C. H. Liu, The role of GPS in precise Earth observation, paper presented at the Symposium on Position, Lo-cation and Navigation Symposium, Orlando, Fla., Nov. 29 to Dec. 2, 1988.

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Data Assimilation

Eyre, J. R., Assimilation of radio occultation measurements into a nu-merical weather prediction system, ECMWF Tech. Memo. 199, Eur. Cent. for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Geneva, 1994.

Kuo, Y.-H., X. Zou, and W. Huang, The impact of global positioning system data on the prediction of an extratropical cyclone: An observing system simulation experiment, J. Dyn. Atmos. Ocean, 27(1-4), 439-470, 1997.

Lindzen, R. S., and M. Fox-Rabinovitz, Consistent vertical and horizontal resolution, Mon. Weather Rev., 117, 2575-2583, 1989.

Zou, X., Y.-H. Kuo, and Y.-R. Guo, Assimilation of atmospheric radio refractivity using a nonhydrostatic adjoint model, Mon. Weather Rev., 123, 2229-2249, 1995.

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Atmospheric Measurements and Science

Ahnert, P. R., Precision and comparability of National Weather Service upper air measurements, paper presented at the Seventh Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, Natl. Weather Serv., New Orleans, La., 1991.

Albrecht, B. A., V. Ramanathan, and B. A. Boville, The effects of cumulus moisture transports on the simulation of climate with a general circulation model, J. Atmos Sci., 43, 2443-2462, 1986.

Allison, M., Planetary waves in Jupiter's equatorial atmosphere, Icarus, 83, 282-307, 1990.

Angell, J. K., Variations and trends in tropospheric and stratospheric global temperatures, 1958-1987, J. Clim., 1, 1296-1313, 1988.

Augstein, E., H. Schmidt, and F. Ostapoff, The vertical structure of the atmospheric planetary boundary layer in undisturbed trade wind over the Atlantic Ocean, Boundary Layer Meteorol., 6, 129-150, 1974.

Barnes, J. A., et al., Characterization of frequency stability, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., IM-20, 105-120, 1971.

Barnett, T. P., and M. E.Schlesinger, Detecting changes in global climate induced by greenhouse gases, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 14,772-14,780, 1987.

Betts, A. K., and W. Ridgway, Climatic equilibrium of the atmospheric convective boundary layer over a tropical ocean, J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 2621-2641, 1989.

Betts, A. K., R. L. Desjardins, and J. I. MacPherson, Budget analysis of the boundary layer grid flights during FIFE 1987, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 18,533-18,546, 1992.

Cess, R. D., et al., Intercomparison and interpretation of climate feed-back processes in 19 atmospheric general circulation models, J. Geo-phys. Res., 95, 16,601-16,615, 1990.

Chahine, M. T., D. J. McCleese, P. W. Rosenkranz, and D. H. Staelin, Interaction mechanisms within the atmosphere, in Manual of Remote Sensing, edited by R.N.Colwell, pp. 165-230, Am. Soc. of Photo-gramm., Falls Church, Va., 1983.

Champion, K. S. W., A. E. Cole, and A. J. Kantor, Standard and reference atmospheres, in Handbook of Geophysics and the Space Envi-ronment, edited by A. S. Jursa, Air Force Geophys. Lab., Bedford, Mass., 1985.

de la Torre Juarez, M., M. Nilsson, On the detection of water vapor profiles and thin moisture layers from atmospheric radio occultations, Aug 27 2002.

Epstein, E. S., Detecting climate change, J. Appl. Meteorol., 21, 1172-1182, 1982.

Finger, F. G., and F. J. Schmidlin, Upper-air measurements and instrumentation workshop, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc, 72, 50-55, 1991.

Fishbach, F. F., A satellite method for temperature and pressure below 24 km, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 9, 528-532, 1965.

Fritts, D. C., et al., Research status and recommendations from the Alaska Workshop on Gravity Waves and Turbulence in the Middle Atmosphere Fairbanks, Alaska 18-22 July 1983, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc, 65, 149-159, 1984.

Fritts, D. C., R. C. Blanchard and L. Coy, Gravity wave structure between 60 and 90 km inferred from space shuttle reentry data, J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 423-434, 1989.

Gary, B. L., A novel method for monitoring global warming using un-manned aerial vehicles and GPS receivers, in White Paper, Jet Propul. Lab., Pasadena, Calif., 1992.

Hajj, G. A., E. R. Kursinski, L. J. Romans, W. I. Bertiger, S. S. Leroy, A technical description of atmospheric sounding by GPS occultation, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 64, 451-469, 2002.

Hansen, J., A. Lacis, D. Rind, L. Russell, P. Stone, I. Fung, R. Ruedy, and J. Lerner, Climate sensitivity analysis of feedback mechanisms, in Climate Processes and Climate Sensitivity, Geophy. Monogr., vol. 29, edited by J. Hansen and T. Takahashi), pp. 130-163, AGU, Wash-ington, D. C., 1984.

Haugstad, B. B., Effects of the inhomogenoeus background on radiation propagating through turbulent planetary atmospheres, Radio Sci., 13, 435-440, 1978.

Heckley, W. A., Systematic errors in the ECMWF operational forecasting model in tropical regions, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 11, 709-738, 1985.

Hoskins, B. J., M. E. McIntyre, and A. W. Robertson, On the use and significance of isentropic potential vorticity maps, Q. J. Meteorol., 111, 877-946, 1985.

Houghton, J. T., G. J. Jenkins and J. J. Ephraums (eds.), Climate Change, The IPCC Scientific Assessment, Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge, England, 1990.

Janjic, Z. I., The step-mountain coordinate physical package, Mon. Weather Rev., 118, 1429-1443, 1990.

Karoly, D. J., Southern Hemisphere temperature trends: A possible greenhouse gas effect?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 14, 1139-1141, 1987.

Karoly, D. J., Northern Hemisphere temperature trends: A possible greenhouse gas effect?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 16, 465-468, 1989.

Kerr, R. A., A military navigation system might probe lofty weather, Science, 256, 318-319, 1992.

Lindzen, R.S. and M. Fox-Rabinovitz, "Consistent Vertical and Horizontal Resolution", Monthly Weather Review, 117, 2575-2583, Nov., 1989.

Leroy, S. S., C. O. Ao, Sounding the atmosphere by LEO-LEO occultation: a simulation-retrieval system and performance analysis results, OPAC Meeting, Graz, Austria, Sep 2002.

Linfield, R., The effect of aperture averaging upon tropospheric delay functions seen with a DSN antenna, Telecommun. Data Acquisition Prog. Rep. 42-124, pp. 1-7, Jet Propul. Lab., Pasadena, Calif., 1996.

Liu, Q., and C. J. E. Schuurmans, The correlation of tropospheric and stratospheric temperatures and its effect on the detection of climate changes, Geophys. Res. Lett., 17, 1085-1088, 1990.

Luers, J. K., and R. E. Eskridge, Temperature corrections for the VIZ and Vaisala radiosondes, J. Appl. Meteorol., 34, 1241-1253, 1995.

Manabe, S., and R. T. Wetherald, Large scale changes of soil wetness induced by an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide, J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 1211-1235, 1987.

McMillin, L. M., M. E. Gelman, A. Sanyal, and M. Sylva, A method for the use of satellite retrievals as a transfer standard to determine systematic radiosonde errors, Mon. Weather Rev., 116, 1091-1102, 1988.

Mesinger, F., Z. I. Janjic, S. Nickovic, D. Gavrilov, and D. G. Deaven, The step-mountain coordinate-model description and performance for cases of alpine lee cyclogenesis and for a case of an Appalachian redevelopment, Mon. Weather Rev., 116, 1493-1518, 1988.

Muruyama, Y., T. Tsuda, M. Yamamoto, T. Nakamura, T. Sato, S. Kato, and S. Fukao, Dominant vertical scales of gravity waves in the middle atmosphere observed with the MU radar and rocketsondes, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 54, 339-346, 1992.

Newell, R. E., and S. Gould-Stewart, A Stratospheric Fountain?, J. At-mos. Sci., 38, 2789-2796, 1981.

Oort, A. H., Global atmospheric circulation statistics 1958-1973, NOAA Prof. Pap. 14, 180 pp., U.S. Gov. Print. Off., Washington, D. C., 1983.

Owens, J. S., Optical refractive index of air: Dependence on pressure, temperature and composition, Appl. Opt., 6, 51-58, 1967.

Parker, D. E., On the detection of temperature changes induced by in-creasing atmospheric carbon dioxide" Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 111, 587-601, 1985.

Randel, W. J., F. Wu, W. R. Rios, Thermal Variability of the Tropical Tropopause Region Derived From GPS/MET Observations, Journal of Geophysical Research, Sep 2002.

Reale, A.L., D.G. Gray and M.W. Chalfant, "TOVS operational soundings without tropospheric microwave data",Proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Satellite Meteoro and Oceanography, pp 30-34, Amer. Meteorol Soc., Anaheim CA., Feb., 1988.

Rind, D., E.-W. Chiou, W. Chu, S. Oltmans, J. Lerner, J. Larsen, M. P. McCormick, and L. McMaster, Overview of the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II water vapor observations: Method, vali-dation, and data characteristics, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 4835-4856, 1993.

Santer, B. D., T. M. I Wigley, M. E. Schlesinger, and P. D. Jones, Multi-variate methods for the detection of greenhouse-gas-induced climate change, in Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climatic Change: A Critical Appraisal of Simulatiuons and Observations, edited by M.E.Schlesinger, Elsevier Sci., New York, 1990.

Santer, B.D., T.M.I Wigley, M.E.Schlesinger and P.D. Jones , Multi-variate methods for the detection of greenhouse-gas-induced climate change, in Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climatic Change: A Critical Appraisal of Simulatiuons and Observations, edited by M.E.Schlesinger, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, 1990.

Schlesinger, M. E., T. P.Barnett and X. J. Jiang, On greenhouse gas signal detection strategies, in Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climatic Change: A Critical Appraisal of Simulations and Observations, edited by M.E.Schlesinger, Elsevier Sci., New York, 1990.

Schmidlin, F.J. , Derivation and applications of temperature corrections for the United States radiosonde, Preprints, Seventh Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, New Orleans, LA, 227-231, 1991.

Smith, E. K., and S. Weintraub, The constants in the equation for atmospheric refractive index at radio frequencies, Proc. IRE, 41, 1035-1037, 1953.

Solomon, S., The mystery of the Antarctic ozone "hole", Rev. Geophys., 26, 131-148, 1988.

Solomon, S., Progress towards a quantitative understanding of Antarctic ozone depletion, Nature, 347, 347-354, 1990.

Spencer, R. W., and J. R. Christy, Precise monitoring of global temperature trends from satellites, Science, 247, 1558-1562, 1990.

Starr, D. O'C., and S. H. Melfi (Eds.), The role of water vapor in climate, A strategic research plan for the proposed GEWEX water vapor project (GVaP), NASA Conf. Publ. 3120, 1991.

Sun, D. Z., and R. S. Lindsen, Water vapor feedback and the ice-age snowline record, Ann. Geophys., 11, 204-215, 1993.

Thayer, G. D., An improved equation for the radio refractive index of air, Radio Sci., 9, 803-807, 1974.

Treuheft, R. N., and G. E. Lanyi, The effect of the dynamic wet troposphere on radio interferometric measurements, Radio Sci., 22, 251-265, 1987.

Wiggins, R. A., The general linear inverse problem: implication of surface waves and free oscillations for earth structure, Rev. Geophys. and Space Phys., 10:251-285, 1972.

Wu, D. L., and J. W. Waters, Variances: A possible indication of gravity waves, Geophys. Res. Lett., in press, 1996.

Yates, H., D. Wark, H. Aumann, N. Evans, N. Phillips, J. Susskind, L. McMillin, A. Goldman, M. Chahine and L. Crone, "Simulation studies of improved sounding systems", NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 42, 109., 1989.

Zuffada, C., G. A. Hajj, E. R. Kursinski, A novel approach to atmospheric profiling with a mountain-based or airborne GPS receiver, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 104, no. D20, pp. 24,435-24,447, 27 Oct. 1999.

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Ionosphere Measurements/Tomography and Science

Anderson, D. N., A Theoritical Study of the Ionospheric Region Equatorial Anomaly, Planetary Space Science, Vol. 21, pp. 409-419, 1973.

Anderson, D. N., The development of global, semi-empirical ionospheric specification models, Proc. of the 7th Intl. Ionospheric Effects Symp., J. Goodman, ed., Alexandria, VA, 1993.

Austen, J. R., S. J. Franke and C. H. Liu, Ionospheric imaging using computerized tomography, Radio Sci., 23, 299-307, 1988.

Bassiri, B., and G. A. Hajj, Higher-order ionospheric effects on the global positioning system observables and means of modeling them, Manuscr. Geod., 18, 280-289, 1993.

Chiu, Y. T., R. M. Robinson and G. T. Davidson, Global 3-d monitoring of the ionosphere with space-based GPS receivers, in Proc. of the International Beacon Satellite Symposium, M. C. Lee, ed., pp. 148-151, Plasma Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Beacon Satellite Symposium, 1992.

Coco, D, GPS-Satellites of opportunity for ionospheric monitoring, GPS World, Oct, pp 47-50, 1991.

Collins, W. G., Complex Quality Control of Significant Level Rawinsonde Temperatures, 18 December 1995, in final form 8 December 1996

Daniell, R. E., L. D. Brown, D. N. Anderson, M. W. Fox, P. H. Doherty, D. T. Decher, J. J. Sojka, R. W. Schunk, "Parametrized Ionospheric Model-A global ionospheric parametrization based on first principles models," Radio Science, Vol. 30, No. 5, pp. 1499-1510, 1995.

Fremouw, D. J., J. A. Secan and B. M. Howe, Application of stochastic inverse theory to ionospheric tomography, Radio Sci., 27:721-732, 1992.

Garcia-Fernandez, M., A. Saito, J. M. Juan, and T. Tsuda, Three-dimensional estimation of electron density over Japan using the GEONET GPS network combined with SAC-C data and ionosonde measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 110, A11304, doi:10.1029/2005JA011037, 2005.

Hajj, G. A., R. Ibañez-Meier and E. R. Kursinski, Ionospheric Imaging from a Low Earth Orbiter Tracking GPS, Proc. of the ION-GPS 93 Conf., Institute of Navigation, Salt Lake City, pp. 1315-1322, 1993.

Hajj, G. A., L. C. Lee, X. Pi, L. J. Romans, W. S. Schreiner, P. R. Straus, C. Wang, COSMIC GPS Ionospheric Sensing and Space Weather, TAO, 11, 1, 235-272, March 2000.

Hajj G. A. and L. J. Romans, Ionospheric Electron Density Profiles Obtained With the Global Positioning System: Results From the GPS/MET Experiment, Radio Science, Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 175-190, 1998.

Ho, C. M., A. J. Mannucci, U. J. Lindqwister, X. Pi and B. T. Tsurutani, Global Ionosphere Perturbations Monitored by the Worldwide GPS Network, Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 23, No. 22, pp 3219-3222, Nov. 1, 1996.

Hajj, G.A., R. Ibañez-Meier, E. R. Kursinski and L. J. Romans, Imaging the ionosphere with the Global Positioning System, Int. J. Imaging Systems and Technology, 5, 174-184, 1994.

Kunitsyn, V. E. and E. D. Tereshchenko, Determination of the turbulent spectrum in the ionosphere by a tomographic method, J. Atmos. Terr. Physics, 54:1275-1282, 1992.

Leitinger R., H. P. Ladreiter and G. Kirchengast, Ionosphere tomography with data from satellite reception of global navigation satellites signals and ground reception of navy navigation satellite system signals, Radio Science , v32 (4), pp1657-1669, 1997.

Mannucci, A. J., B. D. Wilson and C. D. Edwards, A new method for monitoring the earth's ionospheric total electron content using the GPS global network, Proc. of the ION-GPS 93 Conf., Institute of Navigation, Salt Lake City, pp. 1323-1332, 1993.

Mannucci, A. J., B. D. Wilson, D. N. Yuan, C. M. Ho, U. J. Lindqwister, T. F. Runge, "A Global Mapping Technique for GPS-Derived Ionospheric TEC Measurements," to appear in Radio Science, 1998.

Na, H. and H. Lee, Orthogonal decomposition technique for ionospheric tomography, Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol., 3:354-365, 1991.

Na, H. and H. Lee, Resolution analysis of tomographic reconstruction of electron density profiles in the ionosphere, Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol., 2:209-218, 1990

Na, H., Tomographic Reconstruction Techniques for Imaging Electron Density Profiles in the Ionosphere, Ph.D. thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, 1991.

Raymund, T. D., Development and Applications of Ionospheric Tomography, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, 1993.

Raymund, T. D., J. R. Austen, S. J. Franke, C. H. Liu, J. A. Klobuchar and J. Stalker, Application of computerized tomography to the investigation of ionospheric structures, Radio Sci., 25:771-789, 1990.

Raymund, T. D., S. E. Pryse, L. Kersley, and J. A. T. Heaton, Tomographic reconstruction of the ionospheric electron density with European incoherent scatter radar verification, Radio Sci., 28:811-817, 1993.

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Rich, F. J., and S. Basu, Ionospheric Physics, in Handbook of Geophysics and the Space Environment, edited by A. S. Jursa, Air Force Geophys. Lab., Bedford, Mass., 1985.

Romans, L. J. and G. A. Hajj, "Ionospheric Imaging With Low-Earth Orbiters Tracking GPS," AGU Spring Meeting, Baltimore, Maryland, G11B-03, 1996.

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Books

Aki, K. and P. G. Richards, Quantitative Seismology, Theory and Methods, Vol II, W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, 1990.

Born, M., and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 122 pp., 6th ed., Pergamon, New York, 1980.

Kelley, M. C., The Earth's Ionosphere: Plasma Physics and Electrody-namics, 487 pp., Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989.

Papas, C. H., Theory of electromagnetic wave propagation, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965.

Papoulis, A., Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes, 2nd ed., 235 pp., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1984.

Parkinson, B. and P. Axelrad, eds., Global Positioning System-Theory and Applications, AIAA, 1995.

Peixoto, J. P., and A. H. Oort, Physics of Climate, 520 pp., Am. Inst. Phys, New York, 1992.

Tricomi, F. G., Integral Equations, Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1985.

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